26 May 2011

Linux Directory System

During Successful LFI/RFI Testing,We see number of directory in Linux Server like etc,Var,Tmp,Lib and many more Directory.Most of the Newbies don't understand the Linux  directory System. Linux organizes its files differently from Windows.Now,I am Describe you Common Linux Directory.
The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) defines the main directories and their contents in Linux operating systems.

Directory                                          Description
/                     =====>The root directory where the file system begins. In most cases the root directory only contains subdirectories.
/boot             =====> This is where the Linux kernel and boot loader files are kept. The kernel is a file called vmlinuz.
/etc                =====>The /etc directory contains the configuration files for the system. All of the files in /etc should be text files

There are some Subdirectories of etc Directory:-

/etc/xml/        =====>Configuration files for XML.
/etc/passwd  =====>The passwd file contains the essential information for each user. It is here that users are defined.
/etc/fstab       =====>The fstab file contains a table of devices that get mounted when your system boots. This file defines your disk drives.
/etc/hosts      =====>This file lists the network host names and IP addresses that are intrinsically known to the system.
/etc/init.d       =====>This directory contains the scripts that start various system services typically at boot time.
/bin,/usr/bin  =====>These two directories contain most of the programs for the system. The /bin directory has the essential programs that the system requires to operate, while /usr/bin contains applications for the system's users.
/sbin,/usr/sbin=====>The sbin directories contain programs for system administration, mostly for use by the superuser.  
/usr                =====>The /usr directory contains a variety of things that support user applications. Some highlights: 
Subdirectory of usr Directory:-

/usr/share/dict=====>Dictionaries for the spelling checker. Bet you didn't know that Linux had a spelling checker. See look and ispell.
/usr/share/doc=====>Various documentation files in a variety of formats.
/usr/src           =====> Source code files. If you installed the kernel source code package, you will find the entire Linux kernel source code here.
/usr/local        =====>/usr/local and its subdirectories are used for the installation of software and other files for use on the local machine. 
/var                 =====>The /var directory contains files that change as the system is running. This includes:
Subdirectory of Var Directory:-

/var/log          =====> Directory that contains log files. These are updated as the system runs. You should view the files in this directory from time to time, to monitor the health of your system.
/var/spool      =====>This directory is used to hold files that are queued for some process, such as mail messages and print jobs. When a user's mail first arrives on the local system (assuming you have local mail), the messages are first stored in /var/spool/mail
/var/mail/       =====>Users' mailboxes.
/var/lib/          =====>State information. Persistent data modified by programs as they run, e.g., databases, packaging system metadata, etc. 
 /var/tmp/       =====>Temporary files to be preserved between reboots. 

/lib                  =====>The shared libraries (similar to DLLs in that other operating system) are kept here.
/home             =====>/home is where users keep their personal work. In general, this is the only place users are allowed to write files.
/root              =====>This is the superuser's home directory.
/tmp               =====>tmp is a directory in which programs can write their temporary files.
/dev                =====>The /dev directory is a special directory, since it does not really contain files in the usual sense. Rather, it contains devices that are available to the system.For example /dev/fd0 is the first floppy disk drive, /dev/sda (/dev/hda on older systems) is the first IDE hard drive.
/proc              =====>The /proc directory is also special. This directory does not contain files. In fact, this directory does not really exist at all. It is entirely virtual. The /proc directory contains little peep holes into the kernel itself. There are a group of numbered entries in this directory that correspond to all the processes running on the system.


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